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Ancient astronauts

This article is about the idea that aliens visited ancient humans. For
the idea that aliens seeded life on earth, see Directed panspermia.
This article is about the real-life topic. For the plot device from
works of fiction, see Ancient astronauts in popular culture.
Ancient astronauts
Petroglyphs from Val Camonica, Italy. Ancient astronaut proponents
believe that these pictures resemble modern astronauts.
Claims	Intelligent extraterrestrial life visited the Earth in ancient
times and affected human civilization.
Related scientific disciplines	Archaeology
(Overview of pseudoscientific concepts)
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Ancient astronauts (or ancient aliens) refer to a pseudoscientific set
of beliefs[1][2][3][4] which holds that intelligent extraterrestrial
beings visited Earth and made contact with humans in antiquity and
prehistoric times.[1][2][4] Proponents suggest that this contact
influenced the development of modern cultures, technologies,
religions, and human biology.[1][2] A common position is that deities
from most, if not all, religions are extraterrestrial in origin, and
that advanced technologies brought to Earth by ancient astronauts were
interpreted as evidence of divine status by early humans.[1][2][5]

The idea that ancient astronauts existed and visited Earth is not
taken seriously by academics and archaeologists, who identify such
claims as pseudoarchaeological[6] and/or unscientific.[7] It has
received no credible attention in peer reviewed studies.[8] When
proponents of the idea present evidence in favor of their beliefs, it
is often distorted or fabricated.[9] Further, the history of thought
surrounding the subject shows that proponents have adopted white
supremacist beliefs to argue that indigenous cultures around the world
were incapable of the feats of technology and culture that they

Well-known ancient astronauts proponents in the latter half of the
20th century who have written numerous books or appear regularly in
mass media include Robert Charroux, Jacques Bergier, Jean Sendy, Erich
von Däniken,[1][2][4] Alexander Kazantsev, Zecharia Sitchin, Robert K.
G. Temple, Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, David Hatcher Childress, Peter
Kolosimo, and Mauro Biglino.
Mesopotamian cylinder seal.

Various terms are used to reference claims about ancient astronauts,
such as ancient aliens,[12] ancient ufonauts,[13] ancient space
pilots,[14] paleocontact,[15] astronaut- or alien gods,[16][17] or
paleo- or Biblical-SETI (search for extraterrestrial

Believers in such ancient astronaut stories often maintain that all or
some humans are either descendants or creations of extraterrestrial
intelligence who landed on Earth at some point in the ancient past. An
associated idea is that human knowledge, religion, and culture came
from extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times, in that ancient
astronauts acted as a "mother culture". Additionally, proponents often
claim that travelers from outer space built many of the structures on
Earth (such as Egyptian pyramids and the Moai stone heads of Easter
Island) or aided humans in building them.[20] Proponents contend that
the evidence for ancient astronauts comes from documentary gaps in
historical and archaeological records while citing archaeological
artifacts that they believe, contrary to the mainstream explanations,
are anachronistic and supposedly beyond the technical capabilities of
the people who made them. These are sometimes referred to as
"out-of-place artifacts"; and include artwork and legends which
believers reinterpret to fit stories of extraterrestrial contact or

As a pseudoarcheology, the idea receives most notice in fringe, pulp
media including, perhaps most famously, History Channel series Ancient
Aliens.[22] Such shows use a strategy known as 'fire-hosing’ to
co-mingle fact with fiction in order to spread theories of an
alternate past with tropes that follow white supremacist, nativist,
imperialist, settler-colonial, and Christian Identity beliefs relevant
to the past.[23] The celebrity proponents of ancient aliens profess to
be a part of an oppressed minority of academics that 'big archaeology'
is conspiring to disenfranchise while their identity of being a
maverick or a rogue aligns with the individuals' lack of

Like archaeological endeavors of the criticized past, these proponents
focus primarily on monumental archaeological structures claiming they
could have only been constructed with extraterrestrial intervention.
The implication is that the non-white Indigenous people in the regions
in which these monuments appear could not have built them on their
own.[25] A common feature in the stories portray the aliens as
light-skinned or Aryan in complexion, as prominent alien astronaut
proponent Erich von Däniken claims in his foundational work Chariots
of the Gods?.[10][11] Some ancient astronaut proponents are thus
associated with white supremacism, although their theories are
sometimes applied to European cultures as well.[26][27]

These claims are so outlandish that up until recently, mainstream
archaeologists essentially ignored them as absurdities.[23] The few
dedicated popular science explainers and skeptics who did offer
opinions on the ideas universally panned them. For example, Carl Sagan
wrote, "In the long litany of 'ancient astronaut' pop archaeology, the
cases of apparent interest have perfectly reasonable alternative
explanations, or have been misreported, or are simple prevarications,
hoaxes and distortions".[28]
History of ancient aliens beliefs and their proponents

Paleocontact or "ancient astronaut" narratives first appeared in the
early science fiction of the late 19th to early 20th century,
including the 1898 novel Edison's Conquest of Mars[29] and the works
of H.P. Lovecraft.[30] The idea was proposed in earnest by journalist
Harold T. Wilkins in 1954. It grew in popularity in the 1960s, mainly
due to the Space Race and the success of Erich von Däniken's works,
although it also received limited consideration as a serious
hypothesis. Critics emerged throughout the 1970s, discrediting Von
Däniken's claims. Ufologists separated the idea from the UFO
controversy. By the early 1980s little remaining support could be
Shklovskii and Sagan
A Dogū figurine made during Jōmon period (dated 1000–400 BCE).
Votive relief of the winged priest of Dudu on display at the Louvre
Museum, France

Carl Sagan co-authored a widely popular book Intelligent Life in the
Universe, with Soviet astrophysicist Iosif Shklovsky and published in
1966.[32] In his 1979 book Broca's Brain, Sagan suggested that he and
Shklovsky might have inspired the wave of 1970s ancient astronaut
books, expressing disapproval of "von Däniken and other uncritical
writers" who seemingly built on these ideas not as guarded
speculations but as "valid evidence of extraterrestrial contact."[33]
Sagan pointed out that while many legends, artifacts, and purported
out-of-place artifacts were cited in support of ancient astronaut
hypotheses, "very few require more than passing mention" and could be
easily explained with more conventional hypotheses. Sagan also
reiterated his earlier conclusion that extraterrestrial visits to
Earth were possible but unproven, and improbable.[34]
Erich von Däniken
Main article: Erich von Däniken
The sarcophagus lid of Pacal the Great.

Erich von Däniken was a leading proponent of this hypothesis in the
late 1960s and early 1970s, gaining a large audience through the 1968
publication of his best-selling book Chariots of the Gods? and its

According to von Däniken, certain artifacts require a more
sophisticated technological ability in their construction than that
which was available to the ancient cultures who constructed them. Von
Däniken maintains that these artifacts were constructed either
directly by extraterrestrial visitors or by humans who learned the
necessary knowledge from said visitors. These include Stonehenge,
Pumapunku, the Moai of Easter Island, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and
the ancient Baghdad electric batteries.
The so-called "Helicopter hieroglyphs", at Abydos, Egypt.

Von Däniken writes that ancient art and iconography throughout the
world illustrates air and space vehicles, non-human but intelligent
creatures, ancient astronauts, and artifacts of an anachronistically
advanced technology. Von Däniken also states that geographically
separated historical cultures share artistic themes, which he argues
imply a common origin. One such example is von Däniken's
interpretation of the sarcophagus lid recovered from the tomb of the
Classic-era Maya ruler of Palenque, Pacal the Great. Von Däniken
writes that the design represented a seated astronaut. The iconography
and accompanying Maya text, however, identifies it as a portrait of
the ruler himself with the World Tree of Maya mythology.

The origins of many religions are interpreted by von Däniken as
reactions to encounters with an alien race. According to his view,
humans considered the technology of the aliens to be supernatural and
the aliens themselves to be gods. Von Däniken states that the oral and
written traditions of most religions contain references to alien
visitors in the way of descriptions of stars and vehicular objects
travelling through air and space. One such is Ezekiel's revelation,
which Däniken interprets as a detailed description of a landing
spacecraft (The Spaceships of Ezekiel).

Von Däniken's hypotheses became popularized in the U.S. after the
NBC-TV documentary In Search of Ancient Astronauts hosted by Rod
Serling, and the film Chariots of the Gods.

Critics argue that von Däniken misrepresented data, that many of his
claims were unfounded, and that none of his core claims have been
validated.[35] In particular the Christian creationist community is
highly critical of most of von Däniken's work. Young Earth creationist
author Clifford A. Wilson published Crash Go the Chariots in 1972 in
which he attempted to discredit all the claims made in Chariots of the

In Chariots of the Gods?, regarding the Nazca Lines, von Däniken
states that "Seen from the air, the clear-cut impression that the 60
km [37-mile] long plain of Nazca made on me was that of an
airfield."[37] Considering he was in the process of finding evidence
of ancient aliens, von Däniken exhibits confirmation bias, as he does
not consider the Nazca Lines to be man-made until after the
publication of Chariots of the Gods?. This etic perspective that he
presents could be easily accepted by a reader familiar with air
travel, and an undeveloped knowledge of the nature of the geoglyphs.
Furthermore, since the majority of readers of Chariots of the Gods?
are not educated in viewing artifacts from ancient civilizations,
their interpretations are highly subject to von Däniken's opinions of
the artifacts. Kenneth L. Feder argues a reader seeing the Nazca Lines
for the first time in a book about aliens would be much more likely to
associate those features with extraterrestrial origins, rather than
from a civilization that existed on Earth.[38]

In 1970, von Däniken admitted that the Nazca markings "could have been
laid out on their gigantic scale by working from a model using a
system of coordinates."[39]
Zecharia Sitchin
Main article: Zecharia Sitchin

Zecharia Sitchin's series The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The
12th Planet, revolves around Sitchin's unique interpretation of
ancient Sumerian and Middle Eastern texts, megalithic sites, and
artifacts from around the world.[40][41] He hypothesizes that the gods
of old Mesopotamia were astronauts from the planet "Nibiru", which
Sitchin states the Sumerians believed to be a remote "12th planet"
(counting the Sun, Moon, and Pluto as planets) associated with the god
Marduk. According to Sitchin, Nibiru continues to orbit the Sun on a
3,600-year elongated orbit. Modern astronomy has found no evidence to
support Sitchin's ideas.[40]

Sitchin argues that there are Sumerian texts which tell the story that
50 Anunnaki, inhabitants of a planet named Nibiru, came to Earth
approximately 400,000 years ago with the intent of mining raw
materials, especially gold, for transport back to Nibiru. With their
small numbers they soon grew tired of the task and set out to
genetically engineer laborers to work the mines. After much trial and
error they eventually created Homo sapiens sapiens: the "Adapa" (model
man) or Adam of later mythology. Sitchin contended the Anunnaki were
active in human affairs until their culture was destroyed by global
catastrophes caused by the abrupt end of the last ice age some 12,000
years ago. Seeing that humans survived and all they had built was
destroyed, the Anunnaki left Earth after giving humans the opportunity
and means to govern themselves. Sitchin's work has not received
mainstream scholarly support and has been roundly criticized by
professionals that have reviewed his hypotheses. Semitic languages
scholar Michael S. Heiser says that many of Sitchin's translations of
Sumerian and Mesopotamian words are not consistent with Mesopotamian
cuneiform bilingual dictionaries, produced by ancient Akkadian

Alan F. Alford, author of Gods of the New Millennium (1996), was an
adherent of the ancient astronaut hypothesis. Much of his work draws
on Sitchin's hypotheses. However, he now finds fault with Sitchin's
hypothesis after deeper analysis, stating that: "I am now firmly of
the opinion that these gods personified the falling sky; in other
words, the descent of the gods was a poetic rendition of the cataclysm
myth which stood at the heart of ancient Near Eastern religions."[45]
Robert Temple
Main article: Robert K. G. Temple

Robert K. G. Temple's 1976 book, The Sirius Mystery, argues that the
Dogon people of northwestern Mali preserved an account of
extraterrestrial visitation from around 5,000 years ago. He quotes
various lines of evidence, including advanced astronomical knowledge
inherited by the tribe, descriptions, and comparative belief systems
with ancient civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Sumer. His work
draws heavily on the studies of cultural anthropologists Marcel
Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen.[46]

His conclusions have been criticized by scientists, who point out
discrepancies within Temple's account, and suggested that the Dogon
may have received some of their astronomical information recently,
probably from European sources, and may have misrepresented Dogon
UFO religions
Main article: UFO religion

Various new religious movements including some branches of theosophy,
Scientology, Raëlism, Aetherius Society, and Heaven's Gate believe in
ancient and present-day contact with extraterrestrial intelligence.
Many of these faiths see both ancient scriptures and recent
revelations as connected with the action of aliens from other
planetary systems. Psychologists have found that UFO religions have
similarities which suggest that members of these groups consciously or
subliminally associate enchantment with the memes of science
Claims of proponents
See also: Prehistoric religion
Rama being welcomed upon his return to Ayodhya in king Ravana's flying
chariot Pushpaka Vimana

Among scientists, the consensus is that the ancient astronaut
hypothesis is not impossible, but unjustified and unnecessary. The
"mysteries" cited as evidence for the hypothesis can be explained
without having to invoke ancient astronauts; proponents look for
mysteries where none exist.[9] Since ancient astronauts are
unnecessary, Occam's razor should be applied and the hypothesis
rejected according to the scientific consensus.[51]
Ancient religious texts

Proponents cite ancient mythologies to support their viewpoints based
on the idea that ancient creation myths of gods who descend from the
heavens to Earth to create or instruct humanity are representations of
alien visitors, whose superior technology accounts for their
perception as gods. Proponents draw an analogy to occurrences in
modern time when isolated cultures are exposed to advanced technology,
such as when, in the early 20th century, "cargo cults" were discovered
in the South Pacific: cultures who believed various Western ships and
their cargo to be sent from the gods as fulfillment of prophecies
concerning their return.[52][user-generated source?]

The ancient Sumerian myth of Enûma Eliš, inscribed on cuneiform
tablets and part of the Library of Ashurbanipal, says humankind was
created to serve gods called the "Annunaki". Hypothesis proponents
believe that the Annunaki were aliens who came to Earth to mine gold
for their own uses. According to the hypothesis proponents, the
Annunaki realized mining gold was taking a toll on their race, and
then created the human race as slaves.[53]
See also: Vaimānika Shāstra

In Hindu mythology, the gods and their avatars travel from place to
place in flying vehicles called Vimana. There are many mentions of
these flying objects in the Ramayana, which used by the Lankan king
Ravana from Sri Lanka dates to the 5th or 4th century BCE. Below are
some examples:

>From Book 6, Canto CXXIII: The Magic Car:[54]

    Is not the wondrous chariot mine,

    Named Pushpak, wrought by hands divine.
    This chariot, kept with utmost care,
    Will waft thee through the fields of air,
    And thou shalt light unwearied down

    In fair Ayodhyá's royal town.

>From Book 6, Canto CXXIV: The Departure:[54]

    Swift through the air, as Ráma chose,

    The wondrous car from earth arose.
    And decked with swans and silver wings

    Bore through the clouds its freight of kings.

Erich von Däniken discusses the Ramayana and the vimanas in Chapter 6
of Chariots of the Gods? suggesting that they were "space vehicles".
To support his hypothesis, he offers a quotation which he says is from
an 1889 translation of the Mahabharata by C. Roy: "Bhima flew with his
Vimana on an enormous ray which was as brilliant as the sun and made a
noise like the thunder of a storm".[55][56]
Book of Genesis and Book of Enoch

The Book of Genesis, Chapter 6 verses 1–2 and 4, states:

    When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and
daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of
humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.
    The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also
afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had
children by them.
    – Genesis 6:1–4 (New International Version)

Many Christians consider these groups to be the different families of
Adam and Eve's children. Another interpretation is that the Nephilim
are the children of the "sons of God" and "daughters of humans",
although scholars are uncertain.[57] The King James Version translates
"Nephilim" as "giants" (or Gibborim). Ancient Astronaut proponents
argue that Adam and Eve ate of the forbidden fruit in order "to be
godlike", and this was the first step in human evolution.[citation

The first part of the apocryphal Book of Enoch expands and interprets
Genesis 6:1: that the "sons of God" were a group of 200 "angels"
called "Watchers", who descended to Earth to breed with humans. Their
offspring are the Nephilim, "giants" who "consumed all the
acquisitions of men". When humans could no longer sustain the
Nephilim, they turned against humanity. The Watchers also instructed
humans in metallurgy and metalworking, cosmetics, sorcery, astrology,
astronomy, and meteorology. God then ordered the Watchers to be
imprisoned in the ground, and created the Great Flood (or the numerous
Deluge myths) to rid Earth of the Nephilim and of the humans given
knowledge by the Watchers. To ensure humanity's survival, Noah is
forewarned of the oncoming destruction. Because they disobeyed God,
the book describes the Watchers as "fallen angels".[58][original

Some ancient astronaut proponents argue that this story is a
historical account of extraterrestrials visiting Earth, called
Watchers because their mission was to observe humanity. Some of the
extraterrestrials disobeyed orders; they made contact with humans,
cross-bred with human females, and shared knowledge with them. The
Nephilim were thus half-human-half-extraterrestrial
hybrids.[59][better source needed]

Chuck Missler and Mark Eastman argue that modern UFOs carry the fallen
angels, or offspring of fallen angels, and that "Noah's genealogy was
not tarnished by the intrusion of fallen angels. It seems that this
adulteration of the human gene pool was a major problem on the planet

Von Däniken also suggests that the two angels who visited Lot in
Genesis 19 were ancient astronauts, who used atomic weapons to destroy
the city of Sodom.[61]

Marc Dem reinterprets the Book of Genesis by writing that humanity
started on another planet and that the God of the Bible is an
Book of Ezekiel
An engraved illustration of Ezekiel's 'vision' (1670)

Chapter 1 of the Book of Ezekiel recounts a vision in which Ezekiel
sees "an immense cloud" that contains fire and emits lightning and
"brilliant light". It continues: "The center of the fire looked like
glowing metal, and in the fire was what looked like four living
creatures". These creatures, called cherubim, are described as winged
and humanoid, they "sped back and forth like flashes of lightning" and
"fire moved back and forth among the creatures". The passage goes on
to describe four shiny objects, called ophanim, each appearing "like a
wheel intersecting a wheel". These objects could fly and they moved
with the creatures: "When the living creatures moved, the wheels
beside them moved; and when the living creatures rose from the ground,
the wheels also rose".[63][original research?]

In Chapter 4 of Chariots of the Gods?, entitled "Was God an
Astronaut?", von Däniken suggests that Ezekiel had seen a spaceship or
spaceships; this hypothesis had been put forward by Morris Jessup in
1956[64] and by Arthur W. Orton in 1961.[65] A detailed version of
this hypothesis was described by Josef F. Blumrich in his book The
Spaceships of Ezekiel (1974).[66]
Elsewhere in the Bible

The characteristics of the Ark of the Covenant and the Urim and
Thummim have been said to suggest high technology, perhaps from alien

Robert Dione and Paul Misraki published books in the 1960s describing
the events in the Bible as caused by alien technology.[68][69] Barry
Downing, a Presbyterian minister, wrote a book in 1968 arguing that
Jesus was an extraterrestrial, citing John 8:23 and other biblical
verses as evidence.[70]

Some ancient astronaut proponents such as Von Däniken and Barry
Downing believe that the concept of hell in the Bible could be a real
description of the planet Venus brought to Earth by extraterrestrials
showing photos of the hot surface on Venus to humans.[citation needed]
Proponents of the hypothesis state that 'God' and 'Satan' were aliens
that disagreed on whether or not human beings should be allowed the
information that is offered by the tree of knowledge. David Childress,
a leading proponent of ancient astronaut creation hypothesis, compares
this story to the Greek tale of Prometheus, who gave mankind the
knowledge of fire. Ancient Astronaut proponents believe the biblical
concept of Satan is based on a misunderstood visit by
extraterrestrials. Erich von Däniken posited that the descendants of
extraterrestrials had children with hominids, and this was referred to
in the Bible as the "Original sin." Von Däniken believes that the
biblical great flood was punishment after an extraterrestrial 'God'
discovered that earthbound, fallen angels were mating with ape-like
early humans.[71]
Irish Book of Invasions

Childress and others have written that the passage in the Book of
Invasions describing the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann in Ireland,
records "the arrival of aliens in spacecraft with cloaking devices" at
Slieve Anierin. The text states "so that they were the Tuatha De
Danand who came to Ireland. In this wise they came, in dark clouds.
They landed on the mountains of Conmaicne Rein in Connacht and they
brought a darkness over the sun for three days and three nights".[72]
Ancient artwork
Wondjina rock art in the Kimberley region, Australia
Worldwide petroglyphic evidence

Ancient astronaut proponents believe Hopi cave drawings of Kachinas
(spirit beings) found in the desert link the origins of the Hopi and
Zuni tribes with "star people". They point to similar etchings
elsewhere as evidence that extraterrestrials visited many different
ancient civilizations.[citation needed]

Other artistic support for the ancient astronaut hypothesis has been
sought in Palaeolithic cave paintings. Wondjina in Australia and in
the Rock Drawings in Valcamonica, in Italy (seen above) are said to
bear a resemblance to present day astronauts.[73] Supporters of the
ancient astronaut hypothesis sometimes argue that similarities such as
dome shaped heads, interpreted as beings wearing space helmets, prove
that early man was visited by an extraterrestrial race.[74]
Medieval and Renaissance art

More support of this hypothesis draws upon what are said to be
representations of flying saucers and other unidentified flying
objects in Medieval and Renaissance art.[75][user-generated source]

Some examples of these said objects include an ovoid shape in the sky
of the painting Madonna con Bambino e San Giovannino (Madonna and
Child with the Infant Saint John), an unidentified flying object in
the Annunciazione (Annunciation) (1486) by Carlo Crivelli, a
"spherical object with antennae" that appears similar to Sputnik in
Bonaventura Salimbeni's Santissima Trinita (Holy Trinity) (1595), and
many such unidentified flying objects in Masolino Da Panicale's
Miracolo della neve (Miracle of the Snow) (1428). According to Italian
art expert Diego Cuoghi, these objects contain religious symbolism
behind them as most paintings of the time were of religious subjects.
In such artworks, he says that angels and "radiant clouds" often
appear in the sky. He says the object in the Madonna and Child is one
of these radiant clouds, the object in the Annunciazione is a vortex
of angels, the Sputnik-like object of Santissima Trinita is a globe
representing creation with two sceptres held by God and Christ, and
the Miracolo della neve contains many lenticular clouds.[76]
Nazca Lines
A large geoglyph near the Nazca Lines.

The ancient Nazca Lines are hundreds of huge ground drawings etched
into the high desert of southern Peru. Some are stylized animals and
humanoid figures, while others are merely straight lines hundreds of
meters long. As the figures were made to be seen from a great
height,[citation needed] they have been linked with the ancient
astronaut hypothesis. In the 1970s, the pseudohistorical writer Erich
von Däniken popularized a notion that the Nazca lines and figures
could have been made "according to instructions from aircraft" and
that the longer and wider lines might be runways for spacecraft.
According to archaeologist Kenneth Feder, Von Däniken's
extraterrestrial interpretation is not supported by any evidence.
Feder wrote that "the lines are interpreted by archaeologists as
ceremonial pathways of the ancient Nazca people; they were used
precisely in this way in the fairly recent past."[77]

Joe Nickell of the University of Kentucky re-created one of the
figures using only wooden stakes and string.[78]
Ancient artifacts
Ancient flying machines

Proponents of the ancient astronauts idea say some artifacts
discovered in Egypt (the Saqqara Bird) and Colombia-Ecuador (Quimbaya
artifacts) are similar to modern planes and gliders.[79][80] These
artifacts have been interpreted by mainstream archaeologists, however,
as stylized representations of birds and insects.[citation needed]
Ancient structures and megalithic sites
Ahu Tongariki near Rano Raraku.

Proposed evidence for ancient astronauts includes the existence of
ancient monuments and megalithic ruins such as the Giza pyramids of
Egypt, Machu Picchu in Peru, or Baalbek in Lebanon, the Moai of Easter
Island and Stonehenge of England.[81] Supporters say that these stone
structures could not have been built with the technical abilities and
tools of the people of the time and further argue that many could not
be duplicated even today. They suggest that the large size of the
building stones, the precision with which they were laid, and the
distances many were transported leaves the question open as to who
constructed these sites.[citation needed]

These ideas are categorically rejected by mainstream archeology. Some
mainstream archeologists have participated in experiments to move
large megaliths. These experiments have succeeded in moving megaliths
up to at least 40 tons,[82][83] and part have speculated that with a
larger workforce larger megaliths could be towed with the use of known
ancient technology.[84]
Pyramids of Egypt

Von Däniken states that ancient Egypt, with its great structures of
the Giza pyramid complex such as the Great Pyramid of Giza and the
Great Sphinx of Giza, became a "fantastic, ready-made civilization"
suddenly and without transitions and development.[85] Ancient
astronaut proponents suggest that sites like the pyramids of Giza were
instead constructed by extraterrestrials.[86][87] However,
archaeological evidence demonstrates not only the long cultural
trajectory of prehistoric Egypt but also the developmental processes
the ancient Egyptians underwent.[87] Egyptian tombs began with
important leaders of villages being buried in the bedrock and covered
with mounds of earth. Eventually, the first pharaohs had tombs covered
with single-story, mud-brick, square structures called mastabas. The
stepped pyramid developed out of multiple mastabas being stacked on
each one in one structure. This led to the construction of pharaoh
Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara, which is known from records to have
been built by the ancient Egyptian architect and advisor Imhotep.[88]
It was pharaoh Sneferu who had his pyramid transitioned from a stepped
to a true pyramid like the well-known pyramids of Giza.[89] A papyrus
document like a logbook kept by an official called inspector Merer has
also been discovered with records of the construction of the Great

The Moai statues of Easter Island were moved miles from the Rano
Raraku quarry to their current locations, and archaeologists have
wondered how massive statues such as these could have been
transported.[91] The folklore of the native Rapa Nui people says that
chiefs and priests used mana to make the statues of the island walk.
[92] In 1982, Czech engineer Pavel Pavel and a group of sixteen people
used a replica concrete moai to test a method that could have
transported the statues. They tied ropes to it and in two groups
pulled and twisted it back and forth, making it move forward in a
walking motion. They called it the "refrigerator method" and
demonstrated that the massive statues could be easily moved by a small
group of people.[93]
Religious and cultural practices
A physiologically manipulated Paracas skull (housed at the Museo
Regional de Ica in Peru)

A number of ancient cultures, such as the ancient Egyptians and some
Native Americans, artificially lengthened the skulls of their
children. Some ancient astronaut proponents propose that this was done
to emulate extraterrestrial visitors, whom they saw as gods.[94][95]

Among the ancient rulers depicted with elongated skulls are pharaoh
Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The depiction of Akhenaten and his family
with traits like elongated skulls, limbs, underdeveloped torsos, and
gynaecomastia in Amarna art is hypothesized to be the effect of a
familial disease.[96][97] Marriage between family members, especially
siblings, was common in ancient Egyptian royal families, elevating the
risk of such disorders.[98][97] Studies on the remains of the ruling
family of 18th Dynasty Egypt have found evidence of deformities and
illnesses.[97] Proposed syndromes of Akhenaten include Loeys-Dietz
syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, Frohlich syndrome, and Antley-Bixler
syndrome.[96][97] Akhenaten worshipped the sun disk god Aten and it is
suggested that such worship could point to a disease that is
alleviated by sunlight.[99][100]
In popular culture
Main article: Ancient astronauts in popular culture
See also: Extraterrestrials in fiction

Ancient astronauts have been addressed frequently in science fiction
and horror fiction in many different media. In a 2004 article in
Skeptic magazine, Jason Colavito writes that von Däniken borrowed many
of the book's concepts from Le Matin des Magiciens (Morning of the
Magicians), that this book in turn was heavily influenced by the
Cthulhu Mythos, and that the core of the ancient astronaut hypothesis
originates in H. P. Lovecraft's works "The Call of Cthulhu" and At the
Mountains of Madness.[101] Colavito later expanded on this idea in his
book The Cult of Alien Gods: H. P. Lovecraft and Extraterrestrial Pop

The idea that aliens visited Earth in the past is frequently seen in
works of fiction. For example, the comic book Thor considers that all
the Norse mythology is based on actual beings living in other
dimensions, who were worshipped as gods by the Vikings and who
reappear on Earth in modern times. Däniken's work, however, inspired
several works and franchises over time, such as Eternals, Stargate,
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Prometheus and The
X-Files. All those works do not take the idea seriously, but merely
use it as a narrative device.[102] Another angle may be to leave the
aliens out of the story, and focus instead on devices they left
behind, as in the novels Scarlet Dream, Galactic Derelict, World of
Ptavvs, Toolmaker Koan, and A Fire Upon the Deep.[103] Aliens may also
appear as an elder race that created or shepherded humans in their
early times; and may or may not be present in the work's present

Ancient Aliens is a television series that features proponents of the
ancient astronaut hypothesis, such as Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, David
Childress, Erich von Däniken, Steven M. Greer, and Nick
Pope.[105][failed verification]

Many publications have argued for the ancient astronauts hypotheses.
Notable examples include these:

    1919: Charles Fort (book, The Book of the Damned)
    1953: Desmond Leslie (book, Flying Saucers Have Landed)
    1954: Harold T. Wilkins (book, Flying Saucers from the Moon)
    1956: Morris K. Jessup (book, UFO and the Bible)
    1957: Peter Kolosimo (book, Il pianeta sconosciuto – The Unknown Planet)
    1958: George Hunt Williamson (book, Secret Places of the Lion)
    1958: Henri Lhote[106] (book, The Search for the Tassili Frescoes:
The story of the prehistoric rock-paintings of the Sahara)
    1960: Jacques Bergier and Louis Pauwels (book, Le Matin des
magiciens (The Morning of the Magicians))
    1960: Brinsley Le Poer Trench (book, The Sky People)
    1961: Matest M. Agrest (article, The Astronauts of Yore)[107]
    1963: Robert Charroux (book, Histoire inconnue des hommes depuis
100.000 ans – One Hundred Thousand Years of Man's Unknown History)
    1964: Peter Kolosimo (book, Terra senza tempo – Timeless Earth)
    1964: W. Raymond Drake (book, Gods or Spacemen?)
    1964: Robert Charroux (book, Legacy of the Gods)
    1965: Paul Misraki (book, Flying Saucers Through The Ages)
    1965: Robert Charroux (book, The Gods Unknown)
    1967: Brad Steiger (book, The Flying Saucer Menace)
    1967: John Michell (book, The Flying Saucer Vision)
    1968: Erich von Däniken (book, Erinnerungen an die Zukunft:
Ungelöste Rätsel der Vergangenheit, translated as Chariots of the
    1968: Barry Downing (book, The Bible and Flying Saucers)
    1969: Robert Dione (book, God Drives a Flying Saucer)
    1969: Jean Sendy (book, Those Gods Who Made Heaven and Earth; the
novel of the Bible)
    1969: Jacques Vallee (book, Passport to Magonia: From Folklore to
Flying Saucers)
    1970: John Keel (book, Operation Trojan Horse)
    1972: T. C. Lethbridge (book, The Legend of the Sons of God: A Fantasy?)
    1974: Charles Berlitz (book, The Bermuda Triangle)
    1974: Josef F. Blumrich (book, Da tat sich der Himmel auf (The
Spaceships of Ezekiel)
    1974: Claude Vorilhon aka Rael (book, Le Livre Qui Dit La Vérité –
The Book Which Tells the Truth)
    1974: Robin Collyns (book, Did Spacemen Colonise the Earth?)
    1975: Graham Cairns-Smith (a biochemist who suggested that the
ancestors of humans might have had alien biochemistries and presented
evidence to support this possibility in a biological research
    1975: Serge Hutin (book, Alien Races and Fantastic Civilizations)
    1976: Robert K. G. Temple (book, The Sirius Mystery)
    1976: John Baxter, Thomas Atkins (book, The Fire Came By: The
Riddle of the Great Siberian Explosion)
    1977: John Philip Cohane (book, Paradox: The Case for the
Extraterrestrial Origin of Man)
    1977: Warren Smith (book, UFO Trek)
    1978: George Sassoon and Rodney Dale (book, Manna Machine)
    1978: Zecharia Sitchin (book, The 12th planet)
    1984: Salvador Freixedo, (book, ¡Defendámonos de los Dioses! –
Spanish: Let Us Defend Ourselves from the Gods!)
    1988: Salvador Freixedo, (book, La Granja Humana – Spanish: The Human Farm)
    1988: Riley Martin (book, The Coming of Tan)
    1989: Salvador Freixedo, (book, La Amenaza Extraterrestre –
Spanish: The Alien Threat).
    1993: David Icke (book, And the truth shall set you free)
    1996: Alan F. Alford (book, Gods of the New Millennium)
    1996: Murry Hope (book, The Sirius Connection: Unlocking the
Secrets of Ancient Egypt)
    1996: Richard C. Hoagland (book, The Monuments of Mars: A City on
the Edge of Forever)
    1998: Lloyd Pye (book, Everything You Know is Wrong – Book One:
Human Evolution)
    1998: James Herbert Brennan (book, Martian Genesis)
    1999: David Hatcher Childress (book, Technology of the Gods, The
Incredible Science of the Ancients)
    1999: Laurence Gardner (book, Genesis of the Grail Kings: The
Explosive Story of Genetic Cloning)
    2003: Burak Eldem (book, 2012: Appointment With Marduk)
    2009: Giorgio Tsoukalos et al. (TV, Ancient Aliens)

See also

    Extraterrestrial hypothesis
    First contact (science fiction)
    List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
    Science fantasy
    Silurian hypothesis


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Further reading

    Avalos, Hector (2002), "The Ancient Near East in Modern Science
Fiction: Zechariah Sitchin's The 12th Planet as Case Study", Journal
of Higher Criticism, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49–70
    Fagan, Garrett G. (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How
Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30593-4
    Harris, Christie. (1975). Sky Man on the Totem Pole?. New York: Atheneum.
    Stiebing, William H. (1984). Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions
and Other Popular Theories About Man's Past. Prometheus Books. ISBN
    Story, Ronald. (1976). The Space Gods Revealed: A Close Look at
the Theories of Erich von Däniken. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014141-7
    Trefil, James. (2007). "Who Were the Ancient Engineers of Egypt?".
Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 17.1.
    White, Peter. (1976). The Past Is Human: Debunking Von Daniken's
Gee-Whiz Theories. Taplinger.

External links

    'Fringe' or 'cult' archaeology examined by professional
archaeologist Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews, archived from the original
on 14 December 2007, retrieved 4 February 2007
    Ancient Astronauts – Skeptic's Dictionary
    Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #449: Ancient Astronauts". Skeptoid.




Claimed sightings	

    List of reported UFO sightings
    Sightings in outer space

Pre-20th century	

    Tulli Papyrus (possibly 15th century B.C.)
    Ezekiel's Wheel (circa 622–570 B.C.)
    Air ship of Clonmacnoise (740s)
    1561 celestial phenomenon over Nuremberg
    1566 celestial phenomenon over Basel
    José Bonilla observation (1883)
    Airship wave (1896-7)
    Aurora (1897)

20th century	

    Los Angeles (1942)
    Ängelholm UFO memorial (1946)
    Kenneth Arnold (1947)
    1947 craze
    Flight 105 (1947)
    Roswell (1947)
    Rhodes (1947)
    Mantell (1948)
    Chiles-Whitted (1948)
    Gorman Dogfight (1948)
    Mariana (1950)
    McMinnville photographs (1950)
    Sperry (1950)
    Lubbock Lights (1951)
    Nash-Fortenberry (1952)
    Washington, D.C. (1952)
    Flatwoods monster (1952)
    Kelly–Hopkinsville (1955)
    Lakenheath-Bentwaters (1956)
    Antônio Villas Boas (1957)
    Levelland (1957)
    Barney and Betty Hill abduction (1961)
    Lonnie Zamora incident (1964)
    Solway Firth Spaceman (1964)
    Exeter (1965)
    Kecksburg (1965)
    Westall (1966)
    Falcon Lake (1967)
    Shag Harbour (1967)
    Jimmy Carter (1969)
    Finnish Air Force (1969)
    Pascagoula Abduction (1973)
    John Lennon UFO incident (1974)
    Travis Walton incident (1975)
    Tehran (1976)
    Petrozavodsk phenomenon (1977)
    Operação Prato (1977)
    Zanfretta incident (1978)
    Valentich disappearance (1978)
    Kaikoura Lights (1978)
    Robert Taylor incident (1979)
    Val Johnson incident (1979)
    Manises (1979)
    Cash–Landrum incident (1980)
    Rendlesham Forest (1980)
    Trans-en-Provence (1981)
    Japan Air Lines (1986)
    Ilkley Moor (1987)
    Voronezh incident (1989)
    Belgian UFO wave (1990)
    Ariel School (1994)
    Varginha (1996)
    Phoenix Lights (1997)

21st century	

    USS Nimitz UFO incident (2004)
    Campeche, Mexico (2004)
    O'Hare Airport (2006)
    Alderney (2007)
    Norway (2009)
    USS Theodore Roosevelt UFO incidents (2014)
    Jetpack man (2020–21)
    High-altitude object events (2023)
    David Grusch claims (2023)

Confirmed hoaxes	

    Maury Island hoax (1947)
    Twin Falls, Idaho hoax (1947)
    Aztec, New Mexico hoax (1949)
    Southern England (1967)
    Majestic 12 (1985)
    Gulf Breeze (1987–88)
    Alien Autopsy (1995 film)
    Morristown (2009)

Sightings by country	

    Africa (South Africa)
    Czech Republic
    New Zealand
    Spain (Canary Islands)
    United Kingdom
    United States

Types of UFOs	

    Black triangle
    Flying saucer
    Foo fighter
    Ghost rockets
    Green fireballs
    Mystery airship
    Space jellyfish

Types of alleged
extraterrestrial beings	

    Energy beings
    Grey aliens
    Little green men
    Nordic aliens
    Reptilian humanoids


    Investigation of UFO reports by the United States government
    The Flying Saucers Are Real (1947–1950)
    Project Sign (1948)
    Project Grudge (1949)
    Flying Saucer Working Party (1950)
    Project Magnet (1950–1962)
    Project Blue Book (1952–1970)
    Robertson Panel (1953)
    Ruppelt report (1956)
    National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (1956-1980)
    Condon Report (1966–1968)
    Institute 22 (1978–?)
    Project Condign (1997–2000)
    Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program (2007–2012)
    Identification studies of UFOs
    Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force (current)
    NASA's UAP independent study team


    Ancient astronauts
    Nazi UFOs

Conspiracy theories	

    Area 51
        Storm Area 51
    Bob Lazar
    Dulce Base
    Men in black
    Project Serpo

Abduction claims	



    Cattle mutilation
    Close encounter
    Crop circles
    Government responses




    List of scientific skeptics
    Committee for Skeptical Inquiry



Extraterrestrial life
Events and objects	

    Shergotty meteorite (1865)
    Nakhla meteorite (1911)
    Murchison meteorite (1969)
    Viking lander biological experiments (1976)
    Allan Hills 77005 (1977)
    Allan Hills 84001 (1984)
    Yamato 000593 (2000)
    CI1 fossils (2011)

Signals of interest	

    CP 1919 (misidentified pulsar)
    CTA-102 (misidentified quasar)


    KIC 8462852 (unusual light fluctuations)
    EPIC 204278916 (unusual light fluctuations)
    VVV-WIT-07 (unusual light fluctuations)
    HD 164595 signal (unknown origin)


    SHGb02+14a (radio source)
    Wow! signal (inconclusive)
    Fast radio burst (unknown origin)
    BLC1 (radio signal)

Life in the Universe	

    Earliest known life forms
    Planetary habitability in the Solar System
    Life on Venus
    Life on Mars
    Life on Titan


    Catalog of Nearby Habitable Systems
    Circumstellar habitable zone
    Earth analog
    Extraterrestrial liquid water
    Galactic habitable zone
    Habitability of binary star systems
    Habitability of natural satellites
    Habitability of neutron star systems
    Habitability of red dwarf systems
    Habitability of K-type main-sequence star systems
    Habitability of yellow dwarf systems
    Habitability of F-type main-sequence star systems
    List of potentially habitable exoplanets
    Planetary habitability
    Superhabitable planet

Space missions	

    Beagle 2
    Biological Oxidant and Life Detection
    Curiosity rover
    Enceladus Explorer
    Enceladus Life Finder
    Europa Clipper
        Rosalind Franklin rover
    Icebreaker Life
    Journey to Enceladus and Titan
    Life Investigation For Enceladus
    Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment
    Mars Geyser Hopper
    Mars sample-return mission
    Mars 2020
    Northern Light
    Opportunity rover
    Perseverance rover
    SpaceX Red Dragon
    Spirit rover
    Titan Mare Explorer
    Venus In Situ Explorer
    Viking 1
    Viking 2


    Active SETI
    Allen Telescope Array
    Arecibo message
    Arecibo Observatory
    Berkeley SETI Research Center
    Bracewell probe
    Breakthrough Initiatives
        Breakthrough Listen
        Breakthrough Message
    Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence
    Gauss's Pythagorean right triangle proposal
    Lincos language
    Pioneer plaque
    Project Cyclops
    Project Ozma
    Project Phoenix
    Search for extraterrestrial intelligence
    SETI at home
    Voyager Golden Record
    Water hole

Types of alleged
extraterrestrial beings	

    Energy beings
    Grey aliens
    Little green men
    Nordic aliens
    Reptilian humanoids


    Cosmic pluralism
    Directed panspermia
    Drake equation
    Extraterrestrial hypothesis
    Fermi paradox
    Hypothetical types of biochemistry
    Interplanetary contamination
    Kardashev scale
    Mediocrity principle

Fermi paradox solutions	

    Aestivation hypothesis
    Berserker hypothesis
    Dark forest hypothesis
    Firstborn hypothesis
    Great Filter
    Hart–Tipler conjecture
    Planetarium hypothesis
    Rare Earth hypothesis
    Zoo hypothesis

Related topics	

    Ancient astronauts
    Brookings Report
    Extraterrestrials in fiction
    Nexus for Exoplanet System Science
    Planetary protection
    Potential cultural impact of extraterrestrial contact
    Post-detection policy
    San Marino Scale
    UFO religion


Historical negationism

    Knowledge falsification
        school textbook controversies
    Victim blaming

Genocide denial /
denial of mass killings
and atrocities	

    Armenian genocide
    Atrocities against Indigenous peoples
    Bosnian genocide
    Cambodian genocide
    Genocide of Serbs during WWII
        Croatian Wikipedia
    Katyn massacre
    Khojaly massacre
    Nanjing Massacre
        U.S. cover-up of Japanese war crimes
    Rohingya genocide
    Rwandan genocide
    Uyghur genocide


    Austria victim theory
    Clean Wehrmacht
        Rommel / Speer myth
    Italiani brava gente
        Double genocide theory
    Vichy syndrome
    Sonderaktion 1005

Other whitewashing
of governments	

    Cuba de ayer
    Czechoslovak myth
    Denial of state terrorism in Argentina
    Driftwood theory
    Ferdinand Marcos apologism
    Lost Cause of the Confederacy
        Dunning School
    Negationism of the military dictatorship of Brazil [pt] / Chile [es]
    Operation Legacy (UK)

Other manifestations	

    Allah as a lunar deity
    Ancient astronauts
    Ancient Egyptian race controversy
    Book burnings
    Censorship of Great Zimbabwe
    Christ myth theory
    Damnatio memoriae
    Destruction of cultural heritage
        Islamic State
        Saudi Arabia
    Myth of English aid [es]
    Khazar hypothesis
    LGBT erasure
    Like sheep to the slaughter
    Myth of the golden exile
    Phantom time hypothesis / New chronology
    Shakespeare authorship question
    Territorial losses of Thailand


    Destruction of Armenian heritage
        Cemetery in Julfa
        Nakhchivan [ru]
    Nizami Ganjavi
    Western Azerbaijan


    Borussian myth
    Myth of Langemarck [de]
    Stab-in-the-back myth

Israel / Palestine	

    Nakba denial
    Temple denial
    There was no such thing as Palestinians


    Accusations of genocide in Donbas
    All-Russian nation
        On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians
    Censorship of images in the Soviet Union


    Denial of Kurds
    History Thesis
    Sun Language Theory

United States	

    1776 Commission
    Irish slaves myth
    Vietnam stab-in-the-back myth


    Adelaide Institute
    Centre for the Study of the Causes of the War
    Dalit Voice
    Gesellschaft zur Rechtlichen und Humanitären Unterstützung
    Iğdır Genocide Memorial and Museum
    Institute for Armenian Research
    Institute for Historical Review
    Nippon Kaigi
    Turkish Historical Society
    United Daughters of the Confederacy
    Zeitgeschichtliche Forschungsstelle Ingolstadt


    A Town Betrayed
    A Verdade Sufocada
    The Birth of a Nation
    Coverage of the Hillsborough disaster by The Sun
    Did Six Million Really Die?
    Falsifiers of History
    Folk og Land
    A History of the Palestinian People (2017)
    Hitler Diaries
    The Hoax of the Twentieth Century
    I Am More Than a Wolf Whistle
    Jasenovac – istina
    Journal of Historical Review
    Leuchter report
    The Other Side: The Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism
    The Ottoman Lieutenant
    Report about Case Srebrenica


    International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust
    Bali Holocaust Conference

Publishing houses	

    Arndt Verlag
    J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing
    Munin Verlag
    Nation Europa Verlag

Legal status	
Statute law	


Case law	

    R v Zundel (1992)
    Lehideux and Isorni v France (1998)
    Irving v Penguin Books Ltd (2000)
    Perinçek v. Switzerland (2013)

International law	

    Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime
    Right to truth


    Historical fiction
    Historical revisionism
    Historical misconceptions

    Accusation in a mirror
    Ash heap of history
    Cherry picking
    Conspiracy theories
    False attribution
    Furtive fallacy
    Genocide justification



List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

    Cargo cult science
    Fringe theory
        Fringe science
    Junk science
    Pathological science
    Snake oil
    Superseded scientific theory
    True-believer syndrome
    Voodoo Science

characterized as

    Adrenal fatigue
    Alternative medicine
    Anthroposophic medicine
    Applied kinesiology
    Bates method
    Body memory
    Crystal healing
        Colon cleansing
    Doctrine of signatures
    Doktor Koster's Antigaspills
    Ear candling
    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity
    Energy medicine
    Fad diet
    Germ theory denialism
    HIV/AIDS denialism
    Leaky gut syndrome
    Lunar effect
    Macrobiotic diet
    Magnet therapy
    Miracle Mineral Supplement
    Patent medicine
    Primal therapy
    Traditional medicine
        Traditional Chinese medicine
    Vertebral subluxation
    Wind turbine syndrome

Social science	

    2012 phenomenon
    Ancient astronauts
    Conspiracy theory
        5G conspiracy
        9/11 conspiracy theories
        Chemtrail conspiracy theory
        Climate change denial
        COVID-19 misinformation
        Moon landing conspiracy theories
    Conversion therapy
    Generational theory
        Strauss–Howe generational theory
    Hollow Earth theory
    Indigo children
    Japhetic theory
    Nazi archaeology
    Nibiru cataclysm
        Genocide denial
        Historical negationism
        Holocaust denial
    Recovered-memory therapy
        Past life regression
    Scientific racism
        Aryan race
        Melanin theory
    Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
    Enneagram of Personality


    Cold fusion‎
    Faster-than-light travel‎
    Perpetual motion‎
    Quantum mysticism
    Reactionless drive
        Dean drive
    Tractor beam
    Water-fueled car


    Aquatic ape hypothesis
    Biodynamic agriculture
    Biological transmutation
    Creation science
    Electronic voice phenomenon
    Facilitated communication
    Feng shui
    Flat Earth theory
    Intelligent design
    Laundry ball
    Law of attraction
    Pseudoscientific metrology
    Rapid prompting method
    Statement analysis
    Voice stress analysis
    Water memory

Promoters of

    Sucharit Bhakdi
    Del Bigtree
    Igor and Grichka Bogdanoff
    Brigitte Boisselier
    Rhonda Byrne
    Robert Charroux
    Deepak Chopra
    Vernon Coleman
    Ignatius L. Donnelly
    Gaia, Inc.
    Max Gerson
    Nicholas Gonzalez
    Goop (company)
    Graham Hancock
    David Icke
    William Donald Kelley
    Robert F. Kennedy Jr
    Corentin Louis Kervran
    The Light (newspaper)
    Mike Lindell
    Jenny McCarthy
    Joseph Mercola
    Ministry of Ayush
    Theodor Morell
    Hans Alfred Nieper
    Mehmet Oz
    Raël (Claude Vorilhon)
    Randolph Stone
    Paul Joseph Watson
    Andrew Wakefield

Related topics	

    Bogdanov affair
    Bourgeois pseudoscience
    Demarcation problem
    Scientific method
    Suppressed research in the Soviet Union


    Committee for Skeptical Inquiry
    Cults of Unreason
    An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural
    Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science
    Fortean Times
    Skeptical Inquirer
    The Natural History of Quackery
    The Psychology of the Occult
    The Ragged Edge of Science
    The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience
    The Skeptic's Dictionary

Authority control databases Edit this at Wikidata



    BnF data
    United States




    Alleged extraterrestrial beings
    Ancient astronaut speculation
    Fringe theories
    UFO conspiracy theories

    This page was last edited on 26 December 2023, at 10:15 (UTC).

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