[>Htech] CHE: Show Your Hand, Not Your ID

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Sun Dec 4 17:43:36 PST 2005

Show Your Hand, Not Your ID
The Chronicle of Higher Education, 5.12.2
[Colloquy transcript appended.]

[Yes, I can see the advantages of using these scanners, and I think the
concerns over theft and privacy issues are reasonably countered. But the
real problem is that, in making such identifications mandatory, the
informal and generally harmless violations of rules are no longer
possible. Suppose a researcher wants to sneak a friend into his lab after
hours. This, and many, many other technical violations will no longer be
allowed. We must be ever vigilant about this kind of "unreasonableness of
reason," to almost coin a meme. There is a single hit on Google! I lack a
better term.]

    Colleges use biometric scanners to screen for access to dining halls,
    labs, dorms, gyms, and computer networks


    At many colleges, students flash a photo ID at a food-service worker
    to get into a dining hall. Things work differently at the University
    of Georgia, where Gavin Beck, a senior, places his hand on a sensor
    that determines if the person waiting to eat really is Gavin Beck.

    The process, which measures the size and shape of the hand, takes only
    a few seconds. "No system is foolproof, but this is far more efficient
    for us than a photo-based system," says J. Michael Floyd, director of
    food services at Georgia. The university is among the first to use the
    biometric technology widely, having relied on it in one form or
    another in its dining halls since 1974.

    Hand scanners, electronic fingerprint readers, even retina scanners
    are not just for super-spies in Hollywood movies anymore. The
    technology is increasingly being used by colleges to allow students,
    professors, and staff members to gain access to dining halls,
    laboratories, gyms, and other facilities on their campuses.
    Improvements in the technology are spurring greater interest among
    some college administrators.

    Faculty and staff members who seek weekend access to the Biodesign
    Institute at Arizona State University, for example, must be approved
    by a device that checks 240 points in the iris of the eye.

    Locks on dormitory doors at Johnson & Wales University at Denver are
    controlled by a hand-geometry reader similar to Georgia's.

    Food-service workers at Georgia punch in and out of their shifts with
    a time clock that scans their fingerprints so that a worker cannot
    clock in for an absent friend.

    Proponents say biometric technology offers increased security and
    efficiency, making lines move faster while keeping unauthorized
    visitors out. And at a time when colleges are trying to safeguard
    campus data, the technology offers colleges a new tool to control
    access to computers and networks.

    But cost and various technical obstacles are likely to slow the
    technology's adoption by colleges. And some observers worry that the
    systems could leave an electronic paper trail -- open to abuse or
    theft -- of the activities of students and faculty and staff members.
    "It's an extremely disturbing trend," says Lee Tien, a senior staff
    lawyer at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a group that promotes
    online civil liberties. "Biometrics is a technology that is dangerous
    for privacy."

    How It Works

    Administrators who support the use of biometric technology say
    scanning body parts is far more secure than asking users for
    passwords, which can be forgotten or stolen. The scanning devices look
    for some unique characteristic of the user, such as the arrangement of
    ridges on the finger, the pattern of blood vessels in the eye, or the
    size and shape of the hand. The characteristic -- called a biometric
    measurement -- must be unique for each individual, must not change,
    and must be easily measured.

    Typically a person's hand, fingerprint, or eyeball is measured once
    when he or she is enrolled in the system, and that measurement is
    stored in a computer database or on a smart ID card. At the entrance
    to a controlled area, such as a dining hall, the individual's
    characteristic is measured again and compared with the original
    recording. If the two measurements match, the person is admitted.

    Georgia's early system recorded two-dimensional measurements of users'
    hands. But in 1995, as part of a campuswide move toward biometric
    identification, the system was upgraded to one that takes
    three-dimensional measurements. Now the 32,500 students use their
    hands as passports to all-you-can-eat meal plans, the recreation
    center, and dormitories. They either swipe an ID card through a card
    reader or enter an ID number on a keypad before presenting their hand
    for scanning.

    Mr. Floyd, the food-service director, says the system rarely
    misidentifies anyone. Mr. Beck, the Georgia senior, recalls only one
    glitch, when the system wouldn't recognize him at the start of fall
    semester, probably because of a subtle change in his hand's shape over
    the summer. At a nearby office, he showed his ID, had his hand
    rescanned, and was cleared to eat his meal. "It set me back a couple
    of minutes," he says, "but it was no big deal."

    The University of New Hampshire installed a hand-reading system in its
    dining halls when campus officials wanted to halt the sharing of
    all-you-can-eat meal plans by several people, says David J. May,
    executive director of hospitality services.

    "It really has worked wonderfully for us," he says. Although he cannot
    estimate the amount of fraud that the system has stopped, he is
    convinced that "students would beat the system if we were using ID

    The cost of putting biometric security in place is not exorbitant,
    says Mr. May. Each hand reader costs about $2,500, and the turnstile
    to which it is connected costs $8,500 to $9,000. The 12,000-student
    university has seven biometric stations at its dining halls, he says.

    Recently, New Hampshire expanded the system to control employees'
    access to one of its dining halls. That way the university will not
    have to issue keys to employees -- or replace locks if keys are
    stolen. "If an employee leaves, we just take them out of the
    database," so the hand-reading system will no longer recognize that
    person, says Mr. May.

    Smaller-Scale Projects

    Biometric systems are also being used on a smaller scale on some
    campuses. At Rutgers University at New Brunswick, fingerprint-scanning
    devices are being installed on computers attached to laboratory
    equipment in the materials-science department.

    The department, with some 80 potential users of the technology, has a
    password system to track usage of the equipment, so that the
    appropriate research grant is charged. But some students complained
    that they were being charged for others' use, says W. Roger Cannon, a
    professor of materials science and engineering.

    That prompted him to investigate a biometric alternative. "If we had a
    fingerprint system, there would be no argument," he says.

    The new system has functioned well in tests, Mr. Cannon says. "It
    seems to go pretty smoothly if you get the fingerprint centered
    right." Those with concerns about personal privacy can elect to
    continue using passwords, he adds.

    The University of California at Santa Barbara recently installed an
    iris-scanning system for controlling access by about 500 people to a
    10,000-square-foot "clean room" in a semiconductor-research center.

    In the past, having those people swipe their ID cards at the door
    would result in more work for staff members, who would have to replace
    lost or broken cards, says Jack Whaley, manager of the Nanofabrication
    Facility. Moreover, the card readers were sometimes balky, he says,
    and nothing prevented people from lending their cards to others.

    In the new system, an individual's eyes are photographed, and the
    images are digitized, encrypted, and stored on a computer server with
    information about what doors the individual is authorized to use and
    at what times. Researchers who want to get in simply step up to an
    iris reader, which transmits an image of the iris to the server. If
    the images match, the computer opens the door.

    Some challenges remain, like reminding people who have "droopy
    eyelids" to open their eyes wide, says Mr. Whaley. But the system,
    which cost between $20,000 and $30,000, has made a negligible number
    of errors. "It's pretty good," he says.

    More-exotic technology is on the horizon. Fujitsu Ltd. announced in
    June that the Chiba Institute of Technology, in Japan, has adopted a
    company device that uses infrared light to read the unique pattern of
    veins in a student's hand. The patterns are recorded on each
    individual's ID card. At kiosks on the campus, students can get access
    to their academic transcripts and other personal records by inserting
    the cards and holding their hand over a palm reader.

    Next year the institute, which has about 11,000 students, plans to
    issue similar cards to faculty and staff members. It is considering
    expanding the system for such purposes as tracking library checkouts
    and class attendance.

    Joel Hagberg, vice president for marketing and business development at
    Fujitsu Computer Products of America, says the company is discussing
    use of the technology with American colleges, which he does not
    identify. The system could start surfacing on American campuses early
    next year, he says. The vein scanner costs more than a fingerprint
    reader, which can run as much as $100, but less than an iris reader,
    he says, although he declines to provide specific figures.

    The technology will probably materialize first at a large research
    institution, most likely as part of a centralized service such as
    controlling college officials' access to student records, Mr. Hagberg
    predicts, noting that such an application would require only a few
    palm readers.

    "This is something that you will see coming to a university near you
    in the near future," he says.

    Privacy Concerns

    For all the efficiency and gee-whiz value of biometric technology,
    civil libertarians say it raises serious concerns about privacy. The
    theft or abuse of biometric measurements could be even more
    threatening than misuse of Social Security numbers, warns Mr. Tien, of
    the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

    Campus officials using fingerprint readers stress that their systems
    do not record individuals' fingerprints in images like those used by
    law-enforcement agencies. Rather, the systems produce a mathematical
    representation of fingerprints that would be useless to anyone outside
    the colleges.

    Hand-geometry systems seem to cause the least apprehension because
    such measurements are not commonly used off campus and so would have
    little or no application if the biometric data were to leak out. "The
    only person it does any good is me," says Mr. Beck, the Georgia

    Keene State College, in New Hampshire, moved to a hand-reader system
    this semester. Paul A. Striffolino, director of campus life, says the
    system does not intrude on the privacy of the college's 5,000
    students. "An eye-scanning system would seem over the top to me," he

    But some observers say even hand-geometry data could be misused. If
    hand readers become commonplace, authorities could use records from
    the systems to reconstruct a student's movements and activities on the
    campus or across a broader area, says Mr. Tien.

    "It facilitates an atmosphere or a climate of checkpoints," he says.
    "All it is, is maybe a faster way to get through a door. We have to
    wonder whether these are the right trade-offs to be making."

    Indeed, records of a student's biometric measurements, as well as
    records of where and when that student used a biometric device,
    probably would be protected from public disclosure under the Family
    Educational Rights and Privacy Act, says Steven McDonald, general
    counsel at the Rhode Island School of Design, who tracks the effect of
    the federal law on the use of technology on campuses.

    In most cases, he says, Ferpa would not allow a college to disclose,
    without a student's permission, where and when that student had
    entered a dining hall, for example. But the records could still be
    used by the college's own staff and might be vulnerable to subpoena by
    law-enforcement officials, he says.

    Nancy Tribbensee, deputy general counsel at Arizona State, says a
    college should acknowledge privacy concerns before settling on
    biometric technology. She suggests that college officials consider
    whether the benefits, like tighter security, would be outweighed by
    ways in which the data could be abused.

    Recordings from the iris scanner at the university's Biodesign
    Institute are not covered by Ferpa, Ms. Tribbensee notes, because the
    system is used by faculty and staff members. But the university treats
    the data as personnel records and therefore as confidential, and it
    would fight any effort to obtain copies through the state's
    public-records law, she says.

    High Price Tag

    Privacy is not the only concern about biometric security systems. Some
    users also worry about safety -- for example, whether touching a hand
    reader could expose someone to colds and the flu from previous users.
    Mr. May, of New Hampshire, says the device is "no different than a
    doorknob." Still, liquid hand sanitizer is available at each hand
    reader, in a dispenser attached to the wall, and a staff member wipes
    the readers with a sanitizing solution every 15 minutes.

    Another hurdle facing biometric systems is cost. Last year Creighton
    University considered using fingerprint readers to control access to
    the 1,500 to 2,000 computers in its laboratories and offices. At $90
    to $100 a pop, Creighton would have had to spend as much as $200,000
    on the devices -- and that wouldn't have included the cost of
    upgrading the machines as technology advanced. "That would have been a
    huge expense," says Michael M. Allington, assistant director of
    student-technology support in the information-technology department.
    Creighton took a pass.

    Still, industry officials argue that biometric systems make financial
    sense for colleges, at least in some situations. The staff and systems
    needed to maintain a list of passwords for security systems might cost
    a college $50 per student annually, says Tom Doggett, director of
    marketing for Saflink Corporation, which makes a variety of biometric
    systems. By contrast, he says, a large college might spend $30 to $40
    per student to deploy a biometric system.

    "You could make the case that the system would pay for itself in a
    year," Mr. Doggett says.

    But James L. Wayman, director of the National Biometric Test Center at
    San Jose State University, which explores technical issues related to
    the technology, is less optimistic.

    It is unclear, he says, whether dining halls are losing enough money
    from fraud to warrant the expense of a biometric system. "Will it
    pay?" he asks. "That's where it all falls apart."

    "Tell me again," he says, "why you need them on college campuses."

    Biometric systems can also have technical problems, which have prodded
    a few colleges to back away from the technology.

    Recently the New York State Center for Engineering Design and
    Industrial Innovation, at the State University of New York at Buffalo,
    encountered problems with a fingerprint-scanning system used to
    control access to its facilities. The readers worked well in 2000,
    when they were installed inside the building, says Kenneth W. English,
    deputy director. But the design center is planning an expansion that
    would require placing the access controls on the building's exterior,
    and the fingerprint readers worked poorly there because of snow and
    ice. So the center is reverting to having users swipe ID cards through
    a card reader.

    Mr. English hopes that improvements in biometric technology will allow
    the center to move back to fingerprint readers in the next two or
    three years.

    'Weak Fingerprints'

    When Creighton considered fingerprint readers, it tested several
    models. But the machines had a hard time recognizing faculty members
    in the dental school, recalls Mr. Allington. They seemed to have
    less-visible fingerprints, probably because of the frequency with
    which they washed their hands, he says.

    A similar problem surfaced in Georgia's food-service department, where
    600 employees use a fingerprint system to sign in and out of work.
    About 10 of them, whose work often keeps their hands submerged in
    water, have "weak fingerprints" and so cannot use the biometric
    system, says Christopher H. Wilkins, an information-technology manager
    in the university's food-service division. They still clock in and out
    by swiping an ID card or entering an ID number.

Colloquy Transcript

Throwing Away the Keys

    Thursday, December 1, at 2 p.m., U.S. Eastern time

    The topic

    Forget keys and photo ID's. Students trying to get into dormitories at
    Johnson & Wales University in Denver must have their hands measured by
    an electronic scanner. Food-service workers at the University of
    Georgia punch in and out of their shifts with a time clock that scans
    their fingerprints. And faculty and staff members seeking weekend
    access to the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University must be
    approved by a device that checks 240 points in the iris of the eye.

    More and more colleges are using such biometric technology, which its
    fans say is more secure and efficient than traditional tools. The
    technology also offers a new way to control access to campus computers
    and networks. But biometric systems can have technical problems, and
    they are expensive to install. And some observers worry that the
    systems could leave an electronic trail -- open to abuse or theft --
    of employees' and students' activities.

    Are the advantages of biometric technology worth its high cost? Do
    they outweigh its potential misuses? Are biometric records protected
    from public disclosure under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy
    Act, or do colleges need to take extra steps to protect such data?

    The guest

    J. Michael Floyd is director of food services at the University of
    Georgia, which has used biometric technology in one form or another in
    its dining halls since 1974.

                      A transcript of the chat follows.

    Vincent Kiernan (Moderator):
        Good afternoon, and welcome to Colloquy. I'm Vincent Kiernan, a
    senior writer at The Chronicle, and I will be moderating today's
    discussion about the use of biometrics in higher education.

    Our guest is J. Michael Floyd, director of food services at the
    University of Georgia. His institution is a pioneer in the use of
    biometrics -- Georgia has used hand readers in its dining halls since
    the 1970s.

    Just a quick reminder to everyone out there in cyberspace: Send in
    your questions and comments!

    Now, welcome, Mike. Could you start by giving us a thumbnail sketch of
    what your institution does in this area?

    J. Michael Floyd:
        The University of Georgia Food Services has utilized biometric
    technology since 1972 for access control for its voluntary meal plan
    program that allows unlimited access for its customers from 7 am to
    midnight daily. The department is presently on its third generation of
    hand image readers and has recently implemented a biometric
    timekeeping system for its 700 employees. The department has chosen
    biometric technology for its access control to prevent sharing of meal
    plans by customers, reduce labor cost for access control, and to
    increase speed of entry for its customers. The average customer gains
    access into our dining commons within a 3-5 second time period with
    the use of biometric technology. Presently 33,000 students here at the
    University utilize this technology for access for dining commmons,
    residence halls and campus recreation facilities.

    Vincent Kiernan (Moderator):
        Now onto our questions...

    Question from Terri Moreman, U.S. Olympic Training Center:
        Terri Moreman

    U.S. Olympic Training Center

    Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Advantages to Biometrics

    Easy to maintain and archive guest access (various reports available
    with the ability to customize)

    Quicker smother entry - especially when most students dont want to
    carry I.D. card.

    Cheaper and easier then re-keying access doors

    Less chance of misuse

    Card access is even higher however; here again the student would need
    to carry the card at all times. Without the card they have no access.


    Dont go with new technology out the start gate. Seek out a proven
    product in the marketplace.

    Initial equipment set-up is high however in the long run it pays for

    Hand geometry readers cost an average of $3,000 per location

    Certified technicians trained in this specialty are required to
    maintain, trouble shoot and make repairs. Generally speaking an
    electrician or layman may understand the electrical components;
    however he would lack the necessary knowledge to function in this

    The challenge is that technology changes and if you maintain a system
    too long its hard to find parts it. Routine upgrades in software and
    hardware need to be considered to maintain your system.

    Electronic access is great until you have a power outage.

    Systems normally reset themselves however; surges and losses in power
    can cause damage to your system. If your facility is in a high risk
    lightning area it would advantageous to secure a back up generator.

    J. Michael Floyd:
        Terri Moreman makes some excellent comments on her use of
    biometric handreaders at the US Olympic Training Center. One of the
    big advantages that we find in our application of biometrics here at
    the University of Georgia is the financial savings that we realize
    with this system. Let me explain this statement. In our application
    customers activate the system themselves by either swiping their id
    card or punching in their id number then placing their hand in the
    reader. Once the reader recognizes the hand image as a customer it
    then sends a signal to the turnstyle that allows the customer to enter
    the dining commons. By using this self activation system we do not
    need a cashier at every entry device, only a cashier to monitor all
    the entry devices for each dining commons. This reduces our labor cost
    by eight fulltime cashiers. This cost savings greatly outweighs the
    additional cost of the biometric readers. A disadvantage of the system
    is that it does require trained technicians to maintain the system,
    which a photo base only system normally does not require. The main
    service issue that we have is the routine replacement that we have to
    do on the keypad due to the large amount of usage our systems receive
    by our customers choosing to enter their student id number in lieu of
    swiping their id card. The numbers are actually worn off the keypad.

    Question from G. Buhl, Rutgers U.:
        WIth the loss and theft of personal data by Universities reported
    recently in the media, what are the risks to students and faculty of
    entrusting biometric data to Universities?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        With any systems the appropriate safeguards must be in place to
    protect data. However, the biometric data that we use is hand & finger
    images and not prints. This data is of no value to an outsider to
    identify a customer by a hand or finger image. The key to our system
    is that we do not store finger or hand prints. In addition we do not
    identify our customers or employees by their social security number in
    our systems, but we utilize University identification numbers instead.

    Question from Vincent Kiernan:
        Mike, a big issue with any new IT system is cost. Can you give us
    an idea of how much this system costs Georgia -- and how much it saves
    you in operational costs?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        The cost of any system is reflective of the size of the
    application, number of hand readers and the number of locations. In
    our case the initial cost was approximately $100,000. But this cost
    was immediately offset by reduction of staffing. With the use of
    biometric readers where the customer activates the system you do not
    need a cashier for every entry device. In our case we are able to
    staff our cashier station with one cashier who monitors two hand
    readers. This alone reduced labor by 8 fulltime positions. In today's
    dollars this is a savings of approximately $186,000 in salary and
    benefits cost every year. But the true savings is the speed of access
    for our customers. Thereby allowing greater thru put of customers in
    dining centers, which allows us to maximize our operations and reduces
    the need to build operations for peak customer periods. In our case we
    provide meal plan service for our customers in four dining centers. On
    some other campuses this same number of customers may need five to six
    dining centers.

    Question from Vincent Kiernan:
        Mike, biometrics make some people nervous from a privacy
    perspective. Have you encountered any concern on your campus? How do
    you reassure people that their privacy is being protected?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        We have not experienced the privacy concern from our customers
    because we take an aggressive approach of educating our customers that
    our system is a hand image and not a hand print. One of the ways we
    educate our customers on the system is including this information in
    our Food Service presentation during the summer Freshman Orientation
    program. In addition we have previous articles from the Wall Street
    Journal and New York Times framed and in our lobbies to educate our
    customers on our biometric application. Our biometric system was also
    featured in "Beyond 2000" on the Discovery Channel several years ago
    and when the film crew was on campus we attempted to get as many of
    our students involved with the filming. In addition, during my 20 year
    tenure here at the University I have never had a customer express
    concern on this issue. What I do encounter from our customers is a
    sense of pride that they are using state of the art technology and I
    find they are normally our best PR agents as they love to explain our
    system to visitors.

    Question from Vincent Kiernan:
        Do you have any plans to further expand your use of biometrics in
    the dining hall system?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        Yes. We have recently expanded the use of biometrics for
    timekeeping for employees. Utilizing a different biometric system, our
    employees clock in & out daily using a finger image. The next
    expansion is to utilize these devices for backdoor employee access
    into our operations. This will increase the overall security of our
    operations, especially since we have operations open till midnight and
    our plans include a 24-hour dining center in the near future. In my
    opinion, the real future of biometrics in the workplace is in
    timekeeping. This application for employers with large work forces
    will greatly increase the accuracy of paying for actual hours worked
    and prevent "buddy punching."

    Question from Edward Marshall, University of Pennsylvania:
        Are you aware of any health related issues resulting from the use
    of biometric technologies? In particular, retinal scans.
    J. Michael Floyd:
        No, there is no greater risk with the hand image readers than the
    doorknob on the front of the building. However, we do have a procedure
    in place to sanitize the hand reader surface on a routine schedule
    thru out the day. In addition we have hand sanitizer stations located
    inside our dining operations for customers who would like to use this
    product. We do not utilize retinal scans here. However, the most
    common form of eye scanning is iris scanning and with these devices
    the eye is typically 10 to 14 inches away from the scanner.

    Vincent Kiernan (Moderator):
        We're about half way through our scheduled time for this
    conversation. If you have any questions for Mr. Floyd, now would be a
    great time to send them in.

    Question from Dick Sigelko, Michigan State University:
        If the system is not storing fingerprints or hand geography, how
    does it identify the individual as having the privilege?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        The system is storing hand and finger image templates. The
    templates are a mathematical representation of the hand or finger
    ridges. These stored templates are then compared to the image
    presented by the customer/employee when they place their hand or
    finger in the reader. All verifications are done on a one to one
    comparison, not a one to many comparison. For example the customer
    will input their ID number by scanning their card or typing their card
    number on a keypad and then they place their hand in the reader. The
    customer / employee must be active in the system prior to utilizing
    the system.

    Question from Matt Miller, Gettysburg College:
        How long on average does it take to add a new hand image to the
    J. Michael Floyd:
        For both systems the initial image is captured at an orientation.
    Each image takes approximately 30 seconds to capture and verify the
    first time. However, with our meal plan system this one time
    enrollment is the only time we must physically see the student to
    begin participation in the meal plan for their entire academic stay at
    UGA. The enrollment for students is done when they have their ID card

    Question from Vincent Kiernan:
        What advice do you have for colleges that might consider hand
    scanning in the future? Are there any particular land mines to avoid?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        The key is to promote this as state of art technology and to
    excite the customers that they are involved in a unique application of
    technology. One installation issue to avoid is to make sure that all
    hand image readers are installed at the same height. Readers installed
    at different height can result in a higher error ratio.

    Question from Dick Sigelko, Michigan State University:
        Have students expressed a concern about contamination, germs or
    the "ick" factor?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        Over the years we have heard this question from a few customers,
    which allows us to explain our system and how we sanitize the reader
    surface. But normally when we share the comparison about the front
    doorknob on the building the student then realizes the enormous number
    of common surfaces they touch with their hands each day.

    Question from Dick Sigelko, Michigan State University:
        How many mis-reads per 100 do you get?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        We are at less than 1% of false-negatives. This allows our Cashier
    to then look up the customer in our data base and then permit the
    customer to dine.

    Question from Francine Reynolds, University of Richmond:
        Mike, what systems are your biometric readers interfacing with
    (i.e. CBORD's CSGold, etc.)
    J. Michael Floyd:
        Our system is a proprietary system that our campus IT department
    developed and maintains for the campus.

    Question from Terri Moreman, U.S. Olympic Training Center:
        Mike, is your system tied to dorm room or buliding access?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        Yes, our system is tied to residence hall building access. But not
    individual rooms.

    Question from Rich Bredahl, University of Texas at Austin:
        How about issues of cleaniness? With potentially several hundred
    people using a reader per hour, how do you:
    1) Keep the reader clean
    2) Ensure the reader does not become a means of passing
    J. Michael Floyd:
        No, there is no greater risk with the hand image readers than the
    doorknob on the front of the building. However, we do have a procedure
    in place to sanitize the hand reader surface on a routine schedule
    throughout the day. In addition we have hand sanitizer stations
    located inside our dining operations for customers who would like to
    use this product.

    Question from Vincent Kiernan:
        That will be our last question. Mike, any final thoughts?
    J. Michael Floyd:
        In conclusion, the key benefit of a biometric system is that it
    can be a user activated system that creates a great deal of ownership
    by the customer. With this ownership, there is a buy in from the
    customer to assist the organization in making the system work.
    Additionally, biometric systems have the potential of reducing
    personnel cost and improving overall levels of security and customer
    thru put. There is also a greater awareness of security by the
    customer than the traditional photo base system. Biometrics is the
    technology that our children will see in their future workplace.

    Vincent Kiernan (Moderator):
        That about does it for today. On behalf of The Chronicle, thanks
    to Mike Floyd and his staff for their illuminating answers to the
    questions, and thanks to all of you for participating. Have a good

    J. Michael Floyd:
        A special thank you to Donald Smith, Department Manager of UGAcard
    Support Services and Chris Wilkins, IT Manager, UGA Food Services for
    joining me today on the Colloquy and assisting with the
    responses.Additionally Biometric systems have the potential of
    reducing personnel cost and improving overall levels of security and
    customer thru put.

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