# Technical Remailer Analysis.

Hal hfinney at shell.portal.com
Sat Oct 1 10:56:50 PDT 1994

```"Louis Cypher" writes:

>The attack on the reordering remailer is simple. The attacker sends a
>stream of marked messages through the remailer.  After the waiting
>messages have been flushed out, any incoming real message will be
>flushed out of the remailer before more arrive, allowing it to be
>uniquely identified coming and going.  The defense against this is to
>only check the group and send excess messages after a time delay. This
>delay should be the typical time for n real messages to arrive. A
>mixing of approximately n messages is ensured by this process. If
>there is no attack, then the mixing is not quite as good as keeping a
>group of 2n messages.

Good point.  There is a related attack which Chaum pointed out in his
1981 CACM paper: the attacker intercepts and keeps a copy of an incoming
message, then later re-sends it.  This one will go to the same place and
by repeating this multiple times we can figure out where the original
message went.

>[Interesting math deleted]

>The second issue for consideration is:
>Given a web of perfect remailers, how easy is it to identify
>corespondents? Tim has been asking this one for a while.
>[...]
>The probability of a
>given pair of corespondents in a given tick is
>	f^2
>The probability of a pair of corespondents occurring m times in n
>ticks is
>        m
>p= 1 - Sum [(f^2)^i (1 - f^2)^(n-i) n! / (i! (n-i)!)]
>       i=0

If I follow this, the attack is something like, every time Alice sends
a message Bob receives one.  Observing this happening over a period of
time we conclude they are communicating.  Could this be defeated by
sending dummy messages so that Alice sends exactly 10 messages every day?
Then the fact that Bob receives messages on some day can't very well
be associated with Alice.

Hal

```